Wei-Ping Violet Shen, MD
Office and Contact Information
CHOC Children's Specialists
1201 W La Veta
Orange, CA 92868
phone: (714) 509-8636
fax: (714) 509-4748
map & directions
- Oncology, CHOC Children's Specialists
- Clinical Research Director, Oncology, CHOC Children's
- Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics
UC Irvine Medical Center
Physician / Researcher BioClinical Director of the CHOC Research Program, pediatric hematologist/oncologist Violet Shen, M.D. provides expertise in neuro-oncology and new-agent clinical trials. Dr. Shen is board certified in pediatrics and pediatric hematology/oncology. She served a fellowship at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. She completed her residency and internship at Cornell Medical College, North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset and at St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center in New York City, respectively. Dr. Shen received her medical training at National Taiwan University in Taipei. She also speaks Chinese. Dr. Shen manages the Neuro Oncology Clinic at CHOC.
- Medical School
National Taiwan University College of Medicine
- Pediatrics Internship
St Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center, NY
- Pediatrics Residency
Cornell Medical College-North Shore University Hospital
- Pediatric Hematology Oncology Fellowship
Cornell Medical College-New York Hospital and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
- Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
Honors and Awards
- Selected as one of the Top Doctors of Orange County
Orange Coast Magazine, Multiple years
- American Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology
- American Society of Clinical Oncology
- Children Oncology Group
- Society of Neurooncology
ResearchDr. Shen is leading the way for CHOC’s cancer research as the principal investigator for the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) studies, the Children’s Cancer Group (CCG) phase I research, and the COG phase I consortium. CHOC Children's Cancer Institute has been designated as a Phase I clinical trial facility by the Children’s Oncology Group (COG), the nation’s predominant clinical trials group for children and young adult patients with cancer. The Cancer Institute is the only hospital in the southwestern United States—and one of only 21 in North America—offering children Phase I clinical trials for new drugs or treatment. This distinction has provided hope for children whose cancers don’t respond to standard treatment and has made it possible for Dr. Shen and her colleagues to have more than 80 open studies.
- Journal of Clinical Oncology
CHOC Articles & Publications
|Cancer Institute Overview
Making a Mark: October 2008
About 10,000 children under the age of 15 will be diagnosed with cancer this year, according to the American Cancer Society....
|COG Selects CHOC For Phase I Studies
Physician Connection: Summer 2008
CHOC has been designated as a Phase I clinical trial facility by the Children's Oncology Group (COG), the nation's predominant clinical trials group for children and young adult patients with cancer. ...
|More than 80 CHOC Children's Doctors Named "Physicians of Excellence"
January 03, 2012
More than 80 CHOC Children's physicians, including specialists and pediatricians, are named "Physicians of Excellence" by the Orange County Medical Association....
|More than 60 CHOC Children’s Doctors Named “Physicians of Excellence”
January 04, 2011
More than 60 CHOC Children’s physicians, including specialists and pediatricians, are featured as "Physicians of Excellence" in the January 2011 issue of Orange Coast magazine. The "Physicians of Exc...
|More than 50 CHOC Children's Doctors Named "Physicians of Excellence"
January 04, 2010
The Orange County Medical Association names more than 50 CHOC doctors "Physicians of Excellence."...
Hijiya N, Gaynon P, Barry E, Silverman L, Thomson B, Chu R, Cooper T, Kadota R, Rytting M, Steinherz P, Shen V, Jeha S, Abichandani R, Carroll WL. A multi-center phase I study of clofarabine, etoposide and cyclophosphamide in combination in pediatric patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia. Leukemia. 2009 Dec;23(12):2259-64. Epub 2009 Sep 10.
Jeha S, Gaynon PS, Razzouk BI, Franklin J, Kadota R, Shen V, Luchtman-Jones L, Rytting M, Bomgaars LR, Rheingold S, Ritchey K, Albano E, Arceci RJ, Goldman S, Griffin T, Altman A, Gordon B, Steinherz L, Weitman S, Steinherz P. Phase II study of clofarabine in pediatric patients with refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Apr 20;24(12):1917-23.
Jeha S, Kantarjian H, Irwin D, Shen V, Shenoy S, Blaney S, Camitta B, Pui CH. Efficacy and safety of rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase (Elitek), in the management of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia in pediatric and adult patients: final results of a multicenter compassionate use trial. Leukemia. 2005 Jan;19(1):34-8.
Shen V, Li X, Murdock M, Resnansky L, McCluskey E, Semba C: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase) for restoration of function to occluded central venous catheters in pediatric patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25: 38-45, 2003
Jennings M, Sposto R, Boyett J, Vezina G, Pollack I, Shen V etc: Preradiation chemotherapy in primary high risk brain stem tumors: CCG-9941, a phase II study of the Childrens Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 20:3431-3427, 2002
Shen V: Management of breakthrough vomiting. In YourDoctor.com, 2001
Goldman SC, Bracho F, Davenport V, Slack R, Areman E, Shen V, Lenarsky C, Weinthal J, Hughes R, Cairo MS: A feasibility study of Interleukin-11 and G-CSF following myelosuppressive chemotherapy to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (CD34+) from heavily pretreated patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23(5):300-5, 2001
Houtenbos I, Bracho F, Davenport V, Slack R, van de Ven C, Suen Y, Killen R, Shen V, Cairo MS: Autologous bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A novel combined approach consisting of ex vivo marrow purging, modulation of multi-drug resistance, induction of auto graft vs leukemia effect, and post transplant immuno and chemotherapy (PTIC). bone marrow transplantation,27(2):145-53, 2001
Cairo MS, Shen V, Krailo M, Bauer M, Miser J,, Blatt J, Sato J, Liu W, Reaman G: Prospective randomized trial between two doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide (ICE) in Children with Recurrent of Refractory Solid Tumors: A Children?s Cancer Group Report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23:30-38,2001
Bracho F, Krailo M, Shen V, Bergeron S,, Liu-Mares W, Blazer B, van der Ven, C, Secola R, Ames M, Reaman G, Cairo MS: A phase I clinical, pharmacologic and biological trial of interleukin-6 (IL-6) following Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide (ICE) in children with recurrent/refractory solid tumors: Enhanced hematological responses but a high incidence of grade III/IV toxicities. Clinical Cancer Research 7:58-67,2001
Hong R, Shen V, Rooney C, Hughes D, Smith C, Comoli P, Zhang L: Correction of DiGeorge Anomaly with EBV-induced lymphoma by transplantation of organ cultured thymus and Epstein-Barr specific T lymphocytes. Clinical Immunology 98:54-61,2001
Kramer ED, Packer RJ, Ginsberg J, Goldman S, Thompson S, Bayer LA, Shen V, Harris R, Khan S, Finlay JL: Acute neurologic dysfunction associated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow rescue for primary malignant brain tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg 27(5):230-7, 1997
Shen WV, Felsing N, Lang D, Goodman G, Cairo MS: The development of infant botulism in a three year old female with neuroblastoma following autologous bone marrow transplantation: potential use of human botulism immune globulin(HBIG). Bone Marrow Transplantation 13:345-347 (1994)
Cairo MS, Gillan ER, Weinthal J, Yancik S, van de Ven C, Ho W, Shen V, Buzby JS, Suen Y: Decreased endogenous circulating steel factor (SLF) levels following allogeneic and autologous BMT: lack of an inverse correlation with post-BMT myeloid engraftment. Bone Marrow Transplantation 11:155-161, (1993)
Shen WV, Towne B, Zadeh T.: Cytogenetic abnormalities in an intraabdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 64:189-191 (1992)
Shen, W.V., Chapparro M., Young R., Bernstein R.: Absence of isochromosome 12p in a pineal region malignant germ cell tumor. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 50:153-160 (1990).
Shen WV, Walter B, Young R, Choi B., Smith M, Katz J: Molecular analysis of a myxoid chondrosarcoma showing rearrangement in chromosome 10 and 22. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 45:207-215 (1990)
Meyers MB, Shen V, Spengler BA et al: Increased epidermal growth factor receptor in multidrug-resistant human neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 38:87-97 (1988)
Shen W.V., Aldrich T, Perez G., Franza B.R., Furth M.: Expression of normal and mutant ras protein in human leukemia. Oncogene 2:157-165(1987)
Marcos Di Pinto, Ph.D., Violet Shen, M.D., Laura McDonald, M.S., Grace Mucci, Ph.D., Julene Schenk, RN,BSN, Tina Templeman RN, Jody Pathare NP, Kristin Hawking : Intellectual Outcome in Bilingual and Monolingual Children with Medulloblastoma , to be presented at the International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (ISPNO), Vienna, Austria.
Van Huynh, Tina Templeman, Violet Shen, “Toxicity profile of Bevacizumab based regimens in the treatment of pediatric malignant brain tumors - a Single Institution’s Experience, to be presented at International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (ISPNO), Vienna, Austria.
A Lee1, C Fanelli1, LA Harrison1, V Shen2, L Gates2, R Wells2, JE Wolff3, JH Garvin1, DJ Yamashiro1,5, MS Cairo1,4,5 Pilot study of the novel chemotherapy regimen of Topotecan, Ifosfamide, and Carboplatin (TIC) in Children with Refractory/Recurrent Solid Tumors, to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2010 Meeting.
Nobuko Hijiya, Paul Gaynon, Manuel Fernandez, Lewis Silverman, Blythe Thomson, Roland Chu, Todd Cooper, Richard Kadota, Michael Rytting, Peter Steinherz, Violet Shen, Sima Jeha, Elly Barry, William L. Carroll: Durable Remissions Observed in a Phase I/II Study of Clofarabine in Combination with Etoposide and Cyclophosphamide in Pediatric Patients with Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia. (presented at ASH 2008)
Kadota R, Shen V, Messinger Y: Safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of palonosetron in pediatric patients: A multicenter, stratified, double-blind, phase 3, randomized study. Am Soc Clin Oncol 25: No 18S 543s, 2007
Jeha S, Razzouk, M, Rytting M, Gaynon P, Kadoto R, Rheingold S, Luchtman-Jones L, Shen V, Arceci R, Fernandez M, Weitman S, Steinherz P: Phase II trials of Clofarabine in relapsed or refractory pediatric leukemia. Blood 104 (11):196a, 2004
Jeha S, Kantarjian H, Irwin D, Shen V, Shenoy S, Blaney S, Camitta B, Pui CH: Efficacy and safety of rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase (Elitek), in the management of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia in pediatric and adult patients: final results of a multicenter compassionate use trial. Leukemia. 2005 Jan;19(1):34-8.
Cairo MS, Davenport V, Bessmertny O, Goldman SC, Berg SL, Kreissman SG, Laver J, Shen V, Secola R, van de Ven C, Reaman GH: Phase I/II dose escalation study of recombinant human interleukin-11 following ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide in children, adolescents and young adults with solid tumours or lymphoma: a clinical, haematological and biological study. Br. J Haematol 128(1):49-58, 2005
Sima Jeha, Bassem Razzouk, Michael Rytting, Paul Gaynon, Richard Kadota, Susan Rheingold, Lori Luchtman-Jones, Violet Shen, Robert Arcecci. Manuel Fernandez, Steve Weitman, Peter Steinherz: Phase II trials of Clofarabine in relapsed or refractory pediatric leukemia. Blood 104, No 11: 196A,2004
Olga Bessmertny, Stanton Goldman, Stacy Berg, Susan Kreissman, Joseph Laver, Violet Shen, Virginia Davenport, Rita Secola, Gregory Reaman, Mitchell Cairo, The final results of a phase I/II trial of recombinant human interleukin-11 (IL-11) (Neumega) following ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE) in children and adolescents (C+A) with solid tumors (ST) or lymphomas (L). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:811, 2003
Pui CH, Jeha S, Irwin D, Shen V, Shenoy S, Blaney S, Camitta B: Recombinant urate oxidase (Rasburicase, Elitek) for prevention and treatment of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia: updated results of a compassionate use trial. Presented at American Society of Hematology annual meeting, Dec 2002
Shen V, Eckroth E, Evans J: Treatment of malignant central nervous system tumors and high risk solid tumors with dose intensified thiotepa, cyclophosphamide and carboplatin (TCC) and autologous stem cell transplantation. Presented at 10th International symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology, June 2002, London
Shen V, Eckroth E: A phase IV porspective open label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Megestrol Acetate in children with cancer-related anorexia and weight loss. Presented at ASPHO meeting, May 2002, Baltimore
Houtenbos I, Bracho F, Slack R, Shen V, Davenport V, Cairo MS: Improved 2-year overall survival (85%) in children with ALL in high risk 1st CR or 2nd CR with purged autologous BMT and post transplant immunochemotherapy (PTIC). presented at 2nd Biennial Hannover Symposium on Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma, March 14, 2000
F Bracho, G Davenport, S Goldman, V Shen, G. Reaman, J Laver, B Blazer, I Rimm, MS Cairo: RhIL-11+G-CSF improves hematologic recovery, decrease platelet transfusions and increases peripheral blood progenitor cells relative to G-CSF alone in children following ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide chemotherapy, presented at SIOP/ASPHO 1999
V Shen, E Morris, V Davenport, M Krailo, I Rimm, G Reaman, MS Cairo: Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide (ICE) is an excellent retrieval regimen in children with recurrent/refractory CNS malignancies: the Children”s Cancer Group (CCG) experience. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 18:558a, presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting 1999
Bracho F, Krailo M, Shen V, Bergeron S,, Liu-Mares W, Blazer B, van der Ven, C, Secola R, Shah G, Reaman G, Cairo MS: Phase I trial of interleukin-6 (IL-6) following Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide (ICE) in children with recurrent/refractory solid tumors (CCG-0931): Accelerated hematological recovery, increased absorption, and high incidence of constitutional toxicity with elevated levels of IL-1 and IFN Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17:89a, 1998
Bracho F, Shen V, Krailo M, Liu-Mares W, Blazer B, van der Ven, C, Sender L, Secola R, Reaman G, Cairo MS: Recombinant human interleukin 6 (IL-6) is tolerated at 25% the adult maximum tolerated dose (MTD) but appears to enhance hematolopoietic recovery following ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE) chemotherapy in children: Correlation with induction of inflammatory cytokines and mobilization of early progenitor cell subsets. Blood vol 90, No 10, suppl 1:183b, 1997
Shen V, Bergeron S, Krailo M, Blazer B, Edwards J, Sender L, Secola R, Reaman G, Cairo MS: Enhanced hematological recovery but a high incidence of grade III/IV toxicities attributed to Interleukin-6 in children with recurrent/refractoy solid tumors treated with rIL-6 and G-CSF following Ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide(ICE). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 16:111a, 1997
Shen V, Killen R, Slone V, Sender L, Cairo MS: High dose thiotepa, carboplatin and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant is well-tolerated and associated with rapid hematologic reconstitution in children with poor risk solid tumors. (Presented at AACR,1997)
Suen Y, Chang M, Bussel J, Shen V, van de Ven C, Cairo M.S.: Differential mechanisms in the regulation of endogenous levels of thrombopoietin (TPO) and interleukin-11 (IL-11) during acute thrombocytopenia: Insight into the regulation of platelet production. Blood vol 88, No 10, suppl 1:288a, 1996
Shen V, Bergeron S, Krailo M, Blazer B, Edwards J, Sender L, Secola R, Reaman G, Cairo, M: Enhanced hamatological recovery, but a high incidence of grade III/IV toxicities, attributed to interleukin-6 in children with recurrent/refractory solid tumors treated with IL-6 and G-CSF following Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide. Blood vol 88, No 10 suppl 1:137b, 1996
Shen V, Krailo M, Kao W, Liu-Mares W, Reaman G, Cairo MS: Significant activity of Ifosfamide, etoposide and carboplatin combination chemotherapy (ICE) in children with recurrent or refractory CNS tumors: CCG experience. Presented at 1996 International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology
Cairo MS, Krailo M, Miser J, Shen V, Bergeron S, Liu W, Reaman G: Excellent results of the use of Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide (I.C.E.) In children with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 15:468, 1996
Shen V, Bennetts G, Woodbury C, Chang L, Sender L, Killen R and Cairo M.S.: Collection and administration of PBSC in infants and young children: safe feasible with enhancement of hematological reconstitution following myelo and sub-myeloablative therapy. Blood 86, supp1:402a, 1995
Cairo MS, Shen V, Miser J, Krailo M, Blazer B, Reaman G: ): A randomized trial of two doses of G-CSF (5.0 vs 10.0 ?g/kg/d) following Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide (ICE) chemotherapy in children with recurrent solid tumors (RST) No significant improvement in hematopoietic recovery with increased dose of G-CSF. Proc ASCO, 14:255,1995
Bennetts G, Danmeyer D, Woodbury C, Shen V, Cairo M, Van de Ven C: Efficacy of prolonged collection of peripheral blood stem cells in the pediatric population undergoing submyeloablative chemotherapy. Submitted to American Society for Apheresis 16th annual meeting, 1995
Suen Y, Nugent D, Chang M, Shen V, Cairo MS: Endogenous circulating levels of IL-11 are significantly elevated during acute immune thromocytopenic purpura(ITP): Possible positive feedback mechanism of IL-11 production during states of acute thrombocytopenia. Presented at International Society of Experimental Hematology, 1994
Yu Suen, Diane Nugent, Mei Chang, Violet Shen, Mitchell S. Cairo: Increased IL-11 protein production from activated neonatal vs. adult fibroblasts: Its role in the regulation of thrombopoiesis in adults, neonates, and immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) patients. Presented at the Society for Pediatric Research, 1994
Shen V, Bennetts G., Killen R., Harrison M, Rosenthal J., Ishizawa L, Cairo M.S.: The safety and efficacy of repetitive peripheral stem cell support in children with brain tumors receiving dose-intensified chemotherapy. Presented at 6th international symposium on neuro-oncology, 1994
Bennetts G, Shen V, Cairo M, Woodbury C, Killen R: The safety and feasibility of repetitive peripheral blood stem cell collections in children receiving submyeloablative chemotherapy. Presented at 5th international congress of world apheresis association, 1994
Shen V, Bennetts G, Woodbury C, Cairo MS: The safety and efficacy of repetitive peripheral stem cell support in children receiving submyeloablative chemotherapy. Proceedings AACR, Vol 35:240, 1994
DJ Lang, G Briones, M Cairo, V Shen, A Arrieta: Prevention of Coronary Artery Aneurysm (CAA) in Kawasaki Disease (KD) Treated with Sandoglobulin (SG) and Aspirin (ASA). Presented at 94th General Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, May 25, 1994
Shen V, Felsing N, Lang D, Cairo MS: An unusual case of botulism and the successful use of human botulism immuni globulin(HBIG) in a 3 year old female with neuroblastoma following autologous bone marrow transplantation. Blood vol 82, No 10:2550, 1994
Shen WP, Gillan E, Tishler D, Ewing N. Weinthal J, Cairo MS: A pilot study evaluating the toxicity and response rate of Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide (ICE) chemotherapy with G-CSF support for recurrent pediatric solid tumors. Proceedings ASCO 12:426, 1993
Shen WP, Briones G, Lang D, Arrieta A, Cairo M: Sandoglobulin in conjunction with aspirin is well tolerated and very effective in the treatment of Kawasaki Syndrome: 100% prevention of cardiac complications. Submitted to APS/SPR meeting, 1993
Cairo MS, Weinthal J, Shen WP, Gillan E, Yancik S, Suen Yu: Decreased endogenous circulating Steel Factor (SLF)levels following allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation compared to ITP or neutropenia: Lack of significant correlation with post-BMT myeloid engraftment. Blood Vol 80, No 10, suppl 1: 1062
Bernstein R, Chilcote RR, Meltzer, Shen V, Cain MJ, Katz J: Leukemic abnormalities superimposed on chromosomes affected by a constitutional rearrangement. American Society on Human Genetics 1992
Shen WV, Chuong CM: Expression of neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAM) in retinoblastoma: correlation with dissociated, aggregated and differentiation phenotypes. Proc AACR 31:439,1990
Shen V, Amodei P., Choi B: Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule in PC-12 cells following methylmercury exposure: Immunoflurescent, phase and EM study. FASEB 3:A372, 1989
Shen V, Walter B, Haddad M, Wagner C, Bernstein R, Katz J, Young R, Smith M: Deletion or loss of chromosome 9 and 10 in astrocytomas. Presented in 10th Human Gene Mapping Meeting at New haven, 1989 (A2036)
Shen WV, Walter B, Cain MJ, Young R, Katz J and Smith M: Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma with a allele loss in chromosome 22 and chromosome 10. Presented in 3rd international workshop on chromosomes in solid tumors 1989
Shen WV., Wagner K., Walter B, Katz J, Smith M.: Cytogenetic and molecular study of tumors associated with neurofibromatosis. Annual clinical care symposium on neurofibromatosis, 1988
Young,R., Shen. V., Katz, J.: Cytogenetic and Molecular genetic study of brain tumor. Presented at Western Neurosurgery meeting 1988.
Shen WV, Austin T, Katz J: Acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia in a 2 year old Down's syndrome with chromosome 1 and 10 translocation. Blood vol 72 no 5 suppl 1:226a, 1988
Miller J., Shen V, Katz J: Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1/somatomedin-C associated with growth failure in chronically transfused BE thalassemia patients. Blood Vol 72 No 5, suppl 1:67a, 1988
Meyers, M.B., Spengler B.A., Shen W.V., Furth M.E. and Biedler J.L.: Epidermal growth factor receptor is increased in multidrug resistant human neuroblastoma cells. presented in ICN-UCLA meeting in 1986
Shen V., Furth M.E., Franza R. : Expression of ras proteins in human leukemia. Proc AACR 27:429, 1986
Anderson, P/M., Meyers, P, Kleinerman E, Venkatakrishnan, Hughes, D.P, Herzog C, Huh W, Sutphin R, Vyas YM, Shen, V, Warwick A, Yeager N, Oliva C, Wang B, Liu Y, Chou A: Mifamurtide in Metastatic and Recurrent Osteosarcoma: A Patient Access Study with Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic and Safety Assessments. Pediat r Blood Cancer, Published online in Wiley Online Library 2013
Hijiya N, Gaynon P, Barry E, Silverman L, Thomson B, Chu R, Cooper, T, Kadota R, Rytting M, Steinherz P, Shen V, Jeha S, Abichandani R, Carroll W: A multi-center phase 1 study of Clofarabine, Etoposide and Cyclophosphamide in combination in pediatric p atients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia. Blood 118:6043-6049, 2011
N Hijiya, P Gaynon, E Barry, L Silverman, B Thomson, R Chu, T Cooper, R Kadota, M Rytting, P Steinherz,V Shen, S Jeha, R Abichandan and WL Carroll: A multi-center phase I study of clofarabine, etoposide and cyclophosphamide in combination in pediatric patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia 23, 2259–2264,2009